The rise of big tech in the last two decades is remarkable. The so-called GAFAM (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft) now top other companies in terms of world market capitalization—replacing oil, gas, and financial services. Potential abuse of market power has prompted European Union (EU) to regulate big tech.
The competitive landscape in technology markets in the 1990s and 2000s gave rise to platform markets dominated by Internet giants.5,6 Concerns have grown that big tech firms will abuse their market power to protect and improve their market position at the expense of their competitors, consumer choice, and welfare.
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