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Communications of the ACM


Are We Cobblers without Shoes?: Making Computer Science Data FAIR

initials F, A, I, R, amid computer equipment, illustration

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We recently asked a colleague to share a dataset they published along with their paper at one of the ACM conferences. The paper had the "Artifacts available" badgea in the ACM Digital Library, highlighting the research in the paper as reproducible. Yet, the instructions to get the dataset required several steps rather than just a link: log in, find the paper, click on a tab, scroll, get to the dataset. It was much better than receiving the dataset by email. Yet in many other research disciplines—biology, geophysics, biodiversity, social sciences, cultural heritage—sharing data and other research artifacts is streamlined and is the cultural norm. Computer science (CS) is pretty good at sharing software. How did CS researchers get behind many other sciences in how we think about sharing data?

Let's start by distinguishing three different aspects of data sharing: open data, data required for reproducibility of published research, and data as a first-class citizen in scientific discourse. All three aspects are related, but they are not the same: a dataset can be open but not citable or easily discoverable, for example. Or a dataset may be findable and interoperable, but not open.

Of the three aspects of data sharing we mentioned, open data, or data that is available for free under appropriate licenses, is probably most familiar to many CS researchers: most of us are steeped in open source software and understand and appreciate the value of sharing our software in an open way. Open data is just as important and is the bedrock of data-driven research and innovation as practiced by, for example, modern bioscience.b

Reproducibility in research is critical for trust and transparency.5 ACM encouragesc reproducibility of research through badges for papers that have data, code, or other artifacts available. Researchers in several subfields within CS were both instrumental in defining what reproducibility in computing means and in pushing their fields to embrace it. These fields include Databases,d Machine Learning,6 and Information Retrieval,e where conferences have reproducibility tracks and where there is an expectation research will be reproducible. Coincidentally (or maybe not) these are the fields where access to data for training, benchmarking, and algorithm bake-offs is critical. Reproducibility usually entails data, code, and a computational environment being accessible to readers of a paper. Reproducibility does not necessarily imply that the data is open or that it is citable or discoverable by itself, separate from the paper it supplements. Indeed, finding or citing these types of datasets independent of the papers may not make sense in many cases: the datasets may not be useful outside of the context of reproducing the research in the paper.

Finally, thinking of data as a first-class citizen is the third aspect of sharing. Well-defined and well-described datasets, machine-learning models, and other artifacts become an engine for new papers and research; they can serve as a starting point for the next advance; they can inform new research questions and provide benchmarks to compare against. In other words, data, models, and software that we share as the result of our work should themselves be first-class citizens—and we should reward them accordingly.2 If we treat contributions of novel well-documented datasets and software packages with the same reverence that we treat papers, researchers will be more motivated to make these contributions. This goal is somewhat independent from the idea of reproducibility, though we often conflate them: in both cases, we make data and software accessible. When we think about reproducibility, we think about validating the research that has been published. When we think of data and software as independent artifacts, we think about the ways they can be reused for new research.

In many disciplines, the approach to data captured by the acronym FAIR has taken hold: data should be findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable.8 Making data FAIR elevates it to being a first-class citizen in scientific discourse: datasets are valuable contributions by themselves, and others can reuse, cite, and evaluate them. FAIR data is complementary to the notion of reproducibility of research: data being FAIR is about data stewardship through metadata, licensing, and storing data in a public persistent repository. Data being FAIR is also complementary to it being open: a dataset published in an open repository with no metadata or license is not FAIR and does not allow proper reuse. At the same time, a dataset may not be open and have a license that defines constraints on its reuse, and still be FAIR. Indeed, there are projects where data cannot be shared openly for a variety of reasons and may require special agreements from other researchers who need to use it (for example, a dataset with patient medical records). Such datasets can still be FAIR and enable others to discover them, to know under what conditions reuse may be possible, and to interpret the data they are granted access to.

In the last few years, FAIR data became the core of how many scientific communities share their research. For example, essentially all journals that publish papers in geosciences (which includes earth and planetary sciences, climate research, and so forth) require3 authors to make all data that supports the conclusions in their papers available in publicly accessible repositories that follow the FAIR principles.f These changes "elevate data to valuable research contributions rather than the files that are shoved in as an afterthought."7 Major journals in fields such as material science and biology, as well as almost all of the Nature journals have policies on sharing data.g Researchers in fields outside of CS are often familiar with such platforms as Code Ocean (see that enable publication of research objects encapsulating data, software, and computational environment and making these objects citable. Government entities from OECDh and UNESCOi to national governments have embraced the notion of FAIR data for any research data that is created with public funds.

How are we doing in CS? The short answer is "not good." For example, of the 119 ACM conferences,j only fivek encourage their authors to follow FAIR data principles and to submit data and software in public repositories that support these principles. That is less than 4%. Even for reproducibility, the situation is only slightly better: of the remaining 114 ACM conferences, only 19 (20%) mention any sort of artifact submission in their calls for papers—and that is with ACM having an artifact evaluation policy and support for it. The remaining 80% of the ACM conferences do not mention anything about sharing data. And while some of these are theory conferences where there are no research artifacts beyond the paper itself, the vast majority are not. There are non-ACM conferences such as NeurIPS (see and ICML (see that treat datasets and code associated with the papers, particularly dataset papers, as first-class objects. Some conferences have special tracks for publishing papers about datasets and other resources; these tracks often are prescriptive about the best practices for publishing (for example, the Resources track at ISWC; and the Datasets and Benchmarks track at NeurIPS;

So, what would it mean in practice to have CS venues require research artifact submissions follow the FAIR principles?

Identifiers. Consider how often you have published data on your own website or submitted a zip file along with your paper? Such datasets lack identifiers that are either persistent (a URL to your site will change) or dereference-able (can we always find a dataset by its identifier?). The publishing industry has long since found a solution for referencing artifacts: unique, persistent, dereferenceable identifiers. We can refer to an artifact by a string of characters and numbers that uniquely identify it; there is a permanent URL that will always get redirected to the main page of the artifact, even if that particular page moves somewhere. Digital object identifiers (DOIs), compact identifiers, (see and similar schemes all serve this purpose.

Metadata, languages, and standards. Metadata is critical for both humans and tools to understand data. Humans need to know how the data was created, who owns it, how trustworthy the source is, what are the constraints or limitations. Machine-readable metadata makes the data discoverable. Standards such as and W3C DCAT allow machine-readable metadata to be embedded in the landing pages for datasets: the human-readable rendering of the page remains the same, whereas semantic metadata is embedded. This metadata may be as simple as the title and description of a dataset, or much more detailed, including spatial and temporal coverage, provenance, providers, and so on. There are vocabularies developed by specific communities of practice that extend the metadata with the domain-specific terms. Examples include bioschemas, (see by the life science community, or dataset metadata that the scientists in the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) (see have developed. A recent survey provides a comprehensive analysis of metadata standards for computationally reproducible research.4

Licenses and access. Clear licenses make data and software reuse possible. However, a recent analysis of datasets on the Web found that 70% of datasets with machine-readable metadata do not have an explicitly specified license.1 And yet, in practice one cannot confidently reuse a dataset that does not have a license. Not having a license does not make a dataset "open": on the contrary, it prevents reuse by not giving others confidence of what they can and cannot do with a dataset. Creative Commons (see are a popular choice for datasets and there are a variety of choices for software.l

Repositories and permanence. The final question is: Where to publish? The tendency among many CS researchers is to create our own website, or to put it on our lab's page. However, these types of pages inevitably move (or so do people who own them). Anybody who wants to find a dataset mentioned in a reference several years later may have trouble tracking it down. Thus, long-term availability is the first point to consider. Today, many dataset repositories, for example figshare (see, Zenodo (see, Data Dryad (see, and Kaggle ( not only provide long-term access to the data, similar to what publishers do, but also have agreements with libraries for preserving the data in perpetuity.m Furthermore, these repositories make all other aspects of FAIR data sharing easier by generating metadata automatically. GitHub recently announced the ability to cite their code repositories.

Will following all these guidelines make data FAIR?

Will following all these guidelines make data FAIR? Not necessarily. A lot still depends on the community norms that we have yet to build around data publishing. How much is enough in terms of describing the conditions of how a dataset was created? How much do we need to know about the labels of a machine-learning dataset and how they were collected? If a paper describes the creation of a dataset, should we be citing the paper or the dataset when we reuse it? How do we incorporate versioning and provenance of the data and code? Should the sharing and reproducibility be simply a "push of the button"? Researchers who handle data and produce code actively discuss all these issues and propose solutions in CODATA,n RDA,o ReSA,p AGU,q Force11,r and other fora. But rarely in CS venues.

What can we do? As in other disciplines, we will likely need leadership of professional organizations, such as ACM, and incentives from publishers and funders. The computing community is also in the best position to develop tools that reward FAIR sharing: we can create features in repositories that add value to the data and code that we find there. For example, we can develop methods that suggest related datasets, find models to apply to a dataset that we found, give nuanced and useful metrics on the level and types of data reuse. We can enable better data discovery, easier integration with other datasets, semantic annotations, and citation counts for published data. We can also do much better at streamlining the process of data sharing and integrating it into our workflows more easily. Thus, FAIR data will be both about requirements and rewards. Finally, the ACM Digital Library can consider adding badges for FAIR data, thus emphasizing that FAIR principles are complementary to reproducibility and openness.

We hope to move from just a handful of CS conferences and journals requiring that their artifact submissions follow the open-science principles, to having this be a standard practice in our community. Perhaps conference and journals should have their own badges on how much they support or require publication of software and data and whether the requirements follow the FAIR principles. After all, CS researchers are often the ones developing and publishing metadata standards, provenance frameworks, efficient data and code repository infrastructures. We can use these tools to make our own artifacts FAIR. As we make and mend the shoes for everybody else, we, as computer scientists, should wear our own shoes.

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1. Benjelloun, O. et al. Google dataset search by the numbers. In Proceedings of the International Semantic Web Conference. Springer, 667–682.

2. Casari, M. et al. Open source ecosystems need equitable credit across contributions. Nature Computational Science 1, 1 (2021), 2.

3. FAIR play in geoscience data. Nature Geoscience 12 (2019).

4. Leipzig, N. et al. The role of metadata in reproducible computational research. Patterns 2, 9 (2021).

5. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. National Academies Press. 2019.

6. Pineau, J. et al. Improving Reproducibility in Machine Learning Research: A Report from the NeurIPS 2019 Reproducibility Program. CoRR abs/2003. (2020).

7. Stall, S. et al. Make scientific data FAIR. Nature 570 (2019), 27–29.

8. Wilkinson, M.D. et al. The FAIR guiding principles for scientific data management and stewardship. Scientific Data 3, 1 (2016), 1–9.

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Natasha Noy ( is a researcher at Google, Mountain View, CA, USA.

Carole Goble ( is a professor of computer science at the University of Manchester, U.K.

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a. See

b. See

c. See

d. See

e. See

f. See

g. See

h. See

i. See

j. See

k. See

l. The five conferences are: the ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE); ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM); Automated Software Engineering (ASE); the International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-CAP); ACM Conference on Computer-supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW).

m. See

n. See

o. See

p. See

q. See

r. See

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